2018
Rm
  2017
Rm
 
8. TAXATION          
  South African normal taxation          
      Current year     (895)    (350)   
      Prior year     (29)    29    
         (924)    (321)   
   Foreign and withholding taxation                
      Current year     (38)    (379)   
      Prior year           48    
         (38)    (331)   
   Deferred taxation                
      Current year     29     74    
      Prior year     (19)    (12)   
      Attributable to a change in the rate of income tax        25    
         12     87    
   Taxation attributable to the company and its subsidiaries     (950)    (565)   
   Discontinued operation                
      Equipment Iberia – Normal taxation     (26)    (4)   
      Equipment Iberia – Deferred taxation     (3)    (47)   
   Total group     (979)    (616)   

      %   %  
  South Africa normal taxation rate     28.0     28.0    
  Reduction in rate of taxation     (9.7)    (15.1)   
     Exempt income and special allowances@     (8.9)    (6.0)   
     Taxation losses of prior periods     (0.8)    (0.2)   
     IAS12.41 adjustment**           (5.3)   
     Rate change adjustment           (1.0)   
     Prior year taxation           (2.6)   
  Increase in rate of taxation     13.5     9.7    
     Disallowable charges***     2.7     3.6    
     Non-operating and capital items taxation     1.6     1.5    
     Foreign rate differential     2.7     3.9    
     Prior year taxation     1.6          
     IAS12.41 adjustment**     3.6          
     Current year losses not utilised     1.3     0.7    
  Taxation as a percentage of profit before taxation     31.8     22.6    
  Taxation (excluding prior year taxation and non-operating and capital items taxation) as a percentage of profit before taxation (excluding non-operating and capital items)      28.5       23.9    

      2018
Rm
  2017
Rm
 
  Group tax losses at end of year:          
  South African – taxation losses     (453)    (487)   
  Foreign – taxation losses     (1 188)    (2 413)   
        (1 641)    (2 900)   
  Utilised to reduce deferred taxation liabilities or create deferred taxation assets     1 328     1 145    
  Losses on which no deferred taxation assets raised due to uncertainty regarding utilisation       (313)      (1 755)   
  The losses for which no deferred taxation asset has been raised are as follows:                
  South African tax losses                
  Automotive     (25)         
  Barloworld Logistics Africa     (62)         
  Foreign tax losses                
  Barloworld Handling US Group           (634)   
  Barloworld Spanish Group^           (1 092)   
  Equipment Russia     (149)         
  Agriculture Mozambique     (18)         
  Avis Fleet     (59)    (29)   
        (313)    (1 755)   
  @ Exempt income and special allowances largely comprise learnerships, gains on rental assets, dividends, exempt investment income and other capital income/gains.
  ** The group has companies in Russia, Mozambique and Angola where deferred taxes are recognised for temporary differences that arise when an entity’s taxable profit or loss (and thus the tax basis of its non-monetary assets and liabilities) are measured in a currency different than its functional currency. Changes in the exchange rate result in a deferred tax asset or liability which is charged to profit or loss
  *** Disallowable charges relate largely to capital expenses and other such expenses not incurred in the production of income including professional fees, donations, entertainment, depreciation, amortisation, non-deductible allowances on leasehold improvements and goodwill and other asset impairments.
  ^ The Barloworld Spanish Group forms part of the discontinued operation
   

The taxation losses in Barloworld Handling US Group expire in the 2026 financial year.

In relation to all the other losses listed above, there is no expiry date, or limit of carry forward, provided that the businesses continue trading.